The Ringerike Style (c. AD 980 – 1070)
The Ringerike style grew out of the Mammen style during the first half of the 11th century. The style emerged at a time when the custom of erecting stone monuments was becoming more common and the style is named after a series of richly carved stones in the Ringerike district of Norway.
One can see that the Ringerike style has developed from the Mammen style, although there are a number of significant differences: the animals are thinner and more curvaceous; their bodies are no longer decorated inside; the eyes are almond-shaped instead of round; and the tendrils get thinner and longer. A fine grave-slab decorated in the Ringerike style was found in the churchyard of St Paul’s Cathedral, London.Viking ship Weather Vane with Eagle motif, Ringerike style, 11th Century CE. Heggen, Norway
- Vincent Van Gogh. (via feuille-d-automne)
The Jews of Ancient China —- The Kaifeng Jews
The destruction of Jerusalem at the hands of the Romans in 70 AD would create a wave of Jewish diaspora as Jewish rebels were sold into slavery or exiled to locations all over the Roman Empire. However the spread of Jewish peoples would expand beyond the borders of the Roman world, as Jewish genes can be found all over Europe, Africa, and Asia. One far flung Jewish community can be found in China, one of the most extreme examples of Jewish immigration in the ancient world.
After the Jewish revolt against Rome many thousands of Jews headed east to enjoy the wealth and riches of the Silk Road to Asia. Jewish merchant communities sprang up all over Persia, Afghanistan, and Northern India. One Jewish group traveled as far as Henan Province (Eastern China) and settled in the cosmopolitan city of Kaifeng between 600 – 900 AD. By the year 1100 the Jews of Kaifeng had established a large and healthy community with a synagogue, communal kitchen, kosher slaughterhouse, ritual bath, and Sukkah (special building used to celebrate the festival of Sukkot). During the Ming Dynasty the Kaifeng Jews took Chinese surnames which corresponded with the meanings of their original Jewish names. One Kaifeng Jew, Zhao Yingcheng (Moshe Ben Abram) made his mark in Chinese history by being named the Director of the Ministry of Justice by the Emperor in the mid 1600’s. The religious traditions of the Kaifeng Jews remained the same through most of their history, corresponding exactly to the religious practices of Jews in the west. However, in the 1860’s the community would be uprooted due to the chaos caused by the Taiping Rebellion. The synagogue was destroyed and much of the ancient practices of the Kaifeng Jews were lost or forgotten. The war caused a mini-diaspora of Chinese Jews as they sought refuge all over China. After the war many Jews returned to Kaifeng to rebuild their community. Today the Kaifeng Jews still maintain a small community with a rebuilt synagogue. Today 1,000 Jews still maintain a prosperous community in Kaifeng.
The Haggadah of the Kaifeng Jews of China By Fook-Kong Wong, Dalia Yasharpour
Legends of the Chinese Jews of Kaifeng By Xin Xu
The Jews of China: Historical and Comparative Perspectives edited by Jonathan Goldstein
What I've Learned from Two Years Collecting Data on Police Killings
It began simply enough. Commuting home from my work at Reno’s alt-weekly newspaper, theNews & Review, on May 18, 2012, I drove past the aftermath of a police shooting—in this case,that of a man named Jace Herndon. It was a chaotic scene, and I couldn’t help but wonder how often it happened.
I went home and grabbed my laptop and a glass of wine and tried to find out. I found nothing—a failure I simply chalked up to incompetent local media.
A few months later I read about the Dec. 6, 2012, killing of a naked and unarmed 18-year-old college student, Gil Collar, by University of South Alabama police. The killing had attracted national coverage—The New York Times, the Associated Press, CNN—but there was still no context being provided—no figures examining how many people are killed by police.
I started to search in earnest. Nowhere could I find out how many people died during interactions with police in the United States. Try as I might, I just couldn’t wrap my head around that idea. How was it that, in the 21st century, this data wasn’t being tracked, compiled, and made available to the public? How could journalists know if police were killing too many people in their town if they didn’t have a way to compare to other cities? Hell, how could citizens or police? How could cops possibly know “best practices” for dealing with any fluid situation? They couldn’t.
The bottom line was that I found the absence of such a library of police killings offensive. And so I decided to build it.
a comment on the article:
past year, 33 police officers were killed by firearms, where as the amount of “justifiable homicides” by police is over 300. In Seattle in 2012, 20% of the homicides in the entire city that year were committed by police officers. That’s fucked and that’s institutional.
Floral pattern design by designer/illustrator Suthipa Kamyam
last photo shows detail of design printed on layered organza